Friday, August 23, 2019

Different Moral Standards Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Different Moral Standards - Essay Example They took advantage of the changing social norms and values. Since women were entering employment, they believed that they could sell packaged food very well. GMC was concerned only with increasing profits and this was communicated to the Pillsbury-Green Giant Group. Green Giant would have to relocate to Mexico in order to ensure profits. Pillsbury accepted the deal against a payment. In this case, the moral standards of three groups differ with each other and the fourth to be considered is that of the local people of Mexico. It is difficult for Green Giant not to take any action because of remaining passive they would be harming the interests of the stakeholders. The conflict has to be understood and resolved by all parties involved. The goal of GMC was profiting no matter how it was achieved. They were least concerned if the personal values of any group would have to be compromised with. They valued profits and they could apply the management style of ‘light but firm hand on the throat’ to achieve this end. Using this style would not make them feel guilty of committing a wrong. This clearly demonstrates that they give priority to profits over any other values. The goals of Giant Green had to undergo a change to swim along with the demands of the new company. The cultural and religious traditions of both the groups differ which affects the decision making process. GMC is a British company while Green Giant has its roots in Minnesota and California. Since the economic situation of GMC had deteriorated, they were willing to compromise on their values as this gained priority. Thus an ethical solution becomes imperative which causes the least harm and maximum good to the different groups of people involved in this case. The goal of Green Giant-Pillsbury was to maximize profits but their norms differed. The values of the executives of the Pillsbury group differed from the GMC.  

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Individual Learning Project Essay Example for Free

Individual Learning Project Essay The organization selected for analysis and evaluation is American Lake Credit Union. This organization is composed of two main branches, both located in Tacoma, Washington. In contrast to banks, Credit Unions are smaller organizations and are directed by members who are selected via a vote to serve in an all-volunteer board of directors for the organization (Scott, and Johnston, p.2, 2011). Specifically, this credit union was founded in 1948 and has grown since then. (C. Fitzer, personal communication April 7, 2014). For instance, although the organization is small in size through a partnership with a credit union network, it is able to provide general financial services at diverse locations throughout the country (CO-OP Financial Services, 2013). In addition, the active CEO Fantz (2013) asserted that the organization’s mission is to â€Å"provide a variety of quality services to a diversified membership while maintaining financial soundness†; additionally, they currently reported close to 50 billion dollars in assets on organization’s balance sheet. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis Arumugam, Chang, Ooi, and The (2008), emphasized that in order to facilitate the drive towards high performance, many companies are using self-assessment tools to measure their current position and develop strategy in order to asses where they are and where they want to be within their industry. (p.141). SWOT analysis is one of this tools or processes. Boone and Kurtz (2006) defined the concept of SWOT analysis as a methodical approach to develop strategy as it compels managers to do an internal reality check, and an analysis of the external environment (p.274-275). This assertion is echoed by Blocher, Stout, Juras, and Cokins (2013) in which the scholars lectured the process of SWOT analysis as a process that provides the opportunity to methodologically examine internal and external factors in order to complete a self-assessment of the organization, and examine the environment in order to create a solid foundation for sound strategy for the organization (p. 36-38). The general quadrants of a complete SWOT analysis are strengths, weakness,  opportunities, and threats. These are listed in Table 1 for American Lake Credit Union. Table 1 Strengths -High quality aggressive employee training programs parallel with organization high audit and regulatory compliance rates -Membership to CO-OP Shared Branch Network 1 -Local Market Position/Community Relations Program -Cost Advantage and Pricing compared to banks -Physical Locations -Strong and Experienced Managers Weaknesses -Employee Turn-Over -Requirements to become a member -Lack of Market Differentiation as it relate to financial Services2 -Only two physical branches -Lack of a business/Market Development Section -Technology, bad turn around in communications equipment repair, need to redo contract for local IT Support Opportunities -Online Market -Branch Expansion -External Training Program -Rotating Customer Base in the local installation -College population in nearby universities -Available location for Branch at Air Force Location Threats -Military drawdown (long term), affect main target market -More exposed to economic issues (recessions) than bigger organizations due to limited size -Loss of one segment of the market with the deactivation of 4-2 Brigade Combat Team -Columbia Bank Plans to Open Facility in the immediate area 2 -Cyber Crimes External Note. Lists Adapted from (C. Fitzer, personal communication April 7, 2014) with the exception of: 1. CO-OP Financial Services. (2013). What is CO-OP ATM and CO-OP Shared Branch?. Retrieved from http://co-opsharedbranch.org/participating-cus/ 2. (C.H. Chapman, personal Communication April 8, 2014) This source is a marketing consultant for non-profit organizations, has worked closely with the American Lake Credit Union, and provided fresh feed back into the credit union during the interviews. A brief discussion of Table 1 is provided below: In the area of strengths the one of the most important strengths provided during the interview was their current training program for federal  regulatory compliance, this put the organization at an advantage even with more developed organizations In the area of weaknesses, the biggest challenge was employee turnover. Even with the recession and the current job market good talent could and can be found, but it is hard to retain with the current compensation and benefit plans offered In the area of opportunities, the online market presents a strong market that the organization has not exploited as much as they could In the area of threats, the main target market of the American Lake Credit Union is the current drawdown within the Department of Defense structure, in the short term, the population have currently lost 1400 service members and their families, in the long term more loses in market are expected (C. Fitzer, personal communication April 7, 2014) American Lake Credit Union Balanced Scorecard Soderberg, Kalagnanam, Sheehan, and Vaidyanathan (2011) presented the balance scorecard as a strategic planning procedural tool used by organizations to balance financial concerns, customer concerns, process concerns, and innovation concerns with the main purpose of developing appropriate strategy in favor of a more favorable market position (p. 689-690). Similarly, Lawrence and Webber (2008) illustrated the process as a concoction of focused key quadrants, people and knowledge, internal, customer, and financial indicators with the main purpose of developing metrics to measure all areas of performance (p.79). In the case of American Lake Credit Union, interview and analysis with C. Fitzer and C.H. Chapman provided enough data to produce the balanced scorecard depicted in Table 2 below. -Reduce Exposure to default Loans -Cash Flow/Balance Sheet -Selected cost savings in utilities and materials -Reduction in days for accounts receivable -Customer Service/Satisfaction -Customer Loyalty -Trend in Customers that transferred direct deposit accounts -Customer Surveys (Measured Quarterly (QTLY)) -Mystery Shopper feedback to manager -Trend in returning customers Number of Customer complaints -10 new customers a week (Account Holding) -10% increase in market share by end of fiscal year 2015 -95% Satisfaction on surveys per quarter -100% satisfaction in mystery shopper experience -Less than eight percent customer complaint rate quarterly -Participate in community awareness events -Sponsor small activities for customers -Provide Western Union Services at discount to customers with direct deposit to the institution -Open new Branch at local AF Base -Implement Secret Shopper Program -Implement Customer Service Training Table 2 (continued) General Quadrants Critical Success Factors/Goals Metrics/Measured Trends Towards Goals Goal Initiative Internal Process -Processes Efficiency and Quality -Productivity when doing direct customer interactions -Number of errors in financial processes -Cycle time/customer wait time -Time spent doing internal tasks -Less than 5 errors per shift -Less than 10 minutes from check in to check out for customers regarding of the time of the day -Decrease time doing internal tasks by 25% without loss of quality -Implement lean six sigma principles -Sustain compliance Training Program -Integrate yearly refresher for all employees (training will be employee led) Learning and Growth -Skill Development and Sustainment -Competitive Benefits/Compensation -Employee Access and Input in Strategic Planning -Number of errors in financial processes -Employee Surveys -Employee Turn-over rates -90% employee satisfaction rate in surveys -Minimize employee turnover rate by % by 50% FY 15 -Integrate yearly refresher for all employees (training will be employee led) -Implement a more comprehensive benefit package for employees, main target is well performing and those with longevity -Involved Employees in strategy development and asked for feedback on current decision Note. Lists Adapted from (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 7, 2014) with the exception of: 1. CO-OP Financial Services. (2013). What is CO-OP ATM and CO-OP Shared Branch?. Retrieved from http://co-opsharedbranch.org/participating-cus/ 2. (C.H. Chapman, personal communication, April 8, 2014) This source is a marketing consultant for non-profit organizations, has worked closely with the American Lake Credit Union, and provided fresh feed back into the credit union during the interviews. Discussion of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) Blocher et al. (2013) defined critical success factors as â€Å"measures of the aspects of the firm’s performance that are essential to its competitive advantage and therefore to its success† (p. 898). Tables 2 depicted the selected CSFs within the standard four quadrants of the balance score card, and these are discussed in detail below. Financial The financial success factors are important because these defined the aspect of the main purpose of a business, to make a profit. The specific CSFs within the financial quadrant and the rational for their selection are explained below. Increase Gross Profit. This was selected by the interviewed organization representative because in her professional opinion it was the best way to determine the effectiveness and financial health of the organization (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 7, 2014). Furthermore, in accordance to Bloomsbury Information (2009), this an important factor to consider because a high gross profit margin ratio, high gross profit margin ratio indicates that a business can make a reasonable profit on sales, as long as overheads do not increase. Investors pay attention to the gross profit margin ratio because it tells them how efficient your business is compared to competitors. It is sensible to track gross profit margin ratios over a number of years to see if company earnings are consistent, growing, or declining. For businesses, knowing your gross profit margin ratio is important because it tells you whether your business is pricing goods and services effectively. Reduce exposure to default loans. The concept implies reduction of credit risk. The term credit risk is illustrated by He and Xiong (2012), as the risk the organization takes when issuing a loan; furthermore, if the organization’s loan or debt market deteriorates, and loans go into default the organization would take loses in its investment (p. 391). This is important because if this risk is identified and mitigated in an effective way the organization will not be as exposed to financial loses. Customer Factors This specific quadrant addresses the customer and objectives to increase or develop value and differentiation from the point of view of the customer (Beard, 2009, p. 279). Specific CSFs for the organization in this specific quadrant are as follows. Prospective customer perspective towards the organization- This refers specifically for that segment of the market that are not customers of the organization yet. Lautenslager (2003) reported that aachieving a good perspective from this outer segment will allow the organization to attract new customers, expand its market, and build the  organization as an attractive brand which can translate in to new business and profits. Customer Service/Satisfaction- This term refers to the extent that the clientele is pleased with the product line or service provided by the organization. As a general concept this is important because if the customer is unhappy is likely that he would not comeback; furthermore, it is likely that he will walk away, repel other prospective customers, or even existing customers (Naik, 2011). Customer Loyalty- This objective is one of the fundaments of many business organizations. This is extremely important for any organization because once customer loyalty is achieved, these customers will purchase the organization’s products and services repetitively, the more loyal the customer, the harder it will be for a competitor to draw him, and they can provide a good source of advertising and new customers by word of mouth. (C.H. Chapman, personal Communication April 8, 2014). Internal Process Internal processes are another part of the quadrant that when disregarded can cost the organization in terms of effectives, quality, gross margin, and revenue. It refers to those processes that are internal to the organization, like appraisals, self-audits, customer interactions, and quality checks for example. Processes Efficiency and Quality- This area refers to the internal processes of the organization, for example, it was mentioned during the interviews that that one employee on the organization creates a weekly balance sheet, and that job usually takes about one hour. Streamlining this and similar other processes save the organization on employee hours that could be used for customer care or employee training (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 8, 2014). Productivity when doing direct customer interactions- This refers to the amount of time that it takes to do a customer transaction from the moment that they enter the facility until they are complete. It may take a customer about 20 minutes during the busy time of the day to perform the transaction due to crowding. Altering the way the organization conduct some of this processes will allow for the â€Å"line† to move faster, and affecting the customer satisfaction factor. Learning and Growth The quadrant of learning and growth is fundamental to the American Lake Credit Union because of the environment in which financial organizations operate in our time. Constant changes to the financial regulations at the state, and federal levels, added to the technological advances call for continuous organizational development in order to remain relevant with the environment. Therefore, developing a learning collective workforce and retaining this work force is fundamental to any business organization today. The specific CSFs on this quadrant are discussed below. Skill Development and Sustainment- Currently, the organization has a very strong training program in the areas of federal compliance. The intent is to sustain this strong program, and enhanced it by adding employee training in new technologies, internal processes, and customer service; moreover, ensuring the program is employee led and centric, thus, giving a sense of ownership to the workforce (C. Fitzer, personal communica tion, April 8, 2014). Competitive Benefits/Compensation- C. Fitzer (personal communication, April 8, 2014) mentioned that this was one of the main employee complaints in regards to the employee programs within the organization. Implementing, a more comprehensive benefits/compensation plan will ensure that employee turnover rate is minimized and allow the organization to retain the experienced employees. Employee Access and Input in Strategic Planning- Allowing employees to have more impute on the decision making process for the organization will give management a fresher perspective that can be valuable when making those decisions. Plus, it will give sense of ownership to the workforce constraining any resistance to strategic changes. Evaluation of American Lake Credit Union in Achieving its CSFs Financial Any for profit organization is always on the look to increase its profit and solidify or expand its market position. Firstly, the risk reduction initiatives of education and member involvement combined with market expansion should facilitate the current goal of 10% increase in gross profit margin by the end of FY 15 (personal communication, April 8, 2014). Examining the balance Sheet quarterly will allow the organization to follow up and address trends that would constrain this goal. Currently, on the last quarter they were down by 2% from the quarter before, but on this quarter they are up 4% (personal communication, April 8, 2014). This may sound like a wave of percentages, but taking other factors into consideration as the  proposed expansion to the local AFB, cutting unnecessary costs on internal processes and supplies, initiatives to reduce cycle time for accounts receivable, and other initiatives within Table 2 an increase of 10% gross margin by the end of FY 15 is a realisti c and achievable goal for this organization. Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction will be measured monthly, analyzed and evaluated quarterly, taking in to consideration trends in customers that transferred direct deposit accounts, customer surveys, mystery shopper feedback, and trends in returning customers (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 8, 2014). Currently’ the organization have a high customer satisfaction rate with survey results depicting up to 88% on all customer surveys and only three formal complaints last quarter (C. H. Chapman, personal communication, April 8, 2014). This fact combined with the implementation of the secret shopper program on the first quarter of FY 15, and the customer care training program initiatives will give a customer care advantage to the organization over other local competitors (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 8, 2014). On the other hand, although the process for customer complaints seemed to be effective at the collection and solving states, there was no current intent on adding these as part of the customer care training program. This was recommended by this author to the manager under interview. Using an objective approach, after taking into consideration the current customer satisfaction trends and rates, the upcoming initiatives, it can be assessed that the goal of 95% customer satisfaction rate will be achieved and likely surpassed by the end of FY 15. Internal Process American Credit Union is looking to reduce errors in internal processes, increase effectiveness in customer processes, and decrease the time doing internal tasks. The current goals of less than five errors per shift, less than 10 minutes from check in to check out for customers regarding of the time of the day, decrease time doing internal tasks by 25% without loss of quality are achievable, but will require commitment of the leadership and the workforce. For instance, sustaining the current regulatory compliance training program, and implementing lean six sigma principles should provide  the tools to succeed in this area. However, with all the other initiatives on the horizon, and the plans for expansion in to the local AFB it will require extra effort for the organization as a collective to achieve those goals without de-prioritizing other initiatives. Learning and Growth In the case of American Lake Credit Union a robust education and training program, a more comprehensive concoction of compensation and benefits will translate into the development of a better and brighter workforce, and the retaining of this work force. This will be measure by taking into consideration the number of errors in financial processes, employee Surveys, and employee turn-over rates. Some of the initiatives on this area such as consider input from employees in strategic decisions and sustainment training will sharply motivate employees within this area. Moreover, the current goal of 90% employee satisfaction rate in surveys and to minimize employee turnover rate by 50% by FY 15 is very achievable if this area is somewhat prioritized by management. However, as reported in the article Putting People First (2011), management must keep in mind that newly trained and educated employees will take their knowledge and new skill sets somewhere else for better pay and or benefits, if the proposed compensation and benefit packets are implemented (p.25-26). Final Thoughts The purpose of this document was to provide a short description of American Credit Union along with a SWOT Analysis, Balanced Score card, and discussion of these. It can be assessed with the information provided that although there are challenges ahead, the current financial status of the organization selected is healthy and the ambitions for the future achievable as they exploit their strengths, their environment, and address their weaknesses. Lastly, as long as the management remained focused, committed, and is able to maintain the workforce motivated it is likely that the organization will achieve its goals. References Arumugam, V., Chang, H., Ooi, K., and Teh, P. (2009). Self-assessment of TQM practices: a case analysis, The TQM Journal, 21(1), 46 – 58. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/journals.htm?articleid =1766744show=abstract#sthash.TkDGZoZ7.dpuf Beard, D. F. (2009.). Successful applications of the balanced scorecard in higher education. Journal of Education for Business, 84(5), 275-282. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA199801168v=2.1u=vic_libertyit=rp=AONEsw=wasid=0a844270d80075c057b128b38e50a6e7 Blocher, E., Stout, D. S., Juras, P.E., Cokins, G. (2013). Cost Management: A Strategic Emphasis (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Boone, L. and Kurtz, D. (2006). Contemporary Business. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western CO-OP Financial Services. (2013). What is CO-OP ATM and CO-OP Shared Branch?. Retrieved from http://co-opsharedbranch.org/participating-cus/ Fantz, E. (2013). Annual Report. Retrieved from http://www.americanlake.org/pdf/annualreport.pdf Bloomsbury Information. (2009). Gross profit margin ratio. Retrieved from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://literati.credoreference.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/content/entry/qfinance/gross_profit_margin_ratio/0 He, Z., Xiong, W. (2012). Rollover Risk and Credit Risk. Journal of Finance, 67(2), 391-429. Lautenslager, A. (2003), Why You Need PR: Getting the word out about your product or service should always be a priority. Retrieved form http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/65672# Lawrence, A.T., and Weber, J. (2008).Business Society Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy (12th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Naik, A. (2011). Why is Customer Satisfaction Important. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/why-is-customer-satisfaction-important.html Putting people first. (2011). Develop ment and Learning in Organizations, 25(1), 25-27. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777281111096816 Scott, K., and Johnston, C. R. (2011). Factors affecting the adoption of consumer oriented information technology biometrics solutions by the credit union industry. Journal of Technology Research, 2, 1-13. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/887909140?accountid=12085 Soderberg, M., Kalagnanam, S., Sheehan, N., and Vaidyanathan, G. (2011) When is a balanced scorecard a balanced scorecard?, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 60(7) 688-708

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Specific Humoral Immunity B Cells Biology Essay

Specific Humoral Immunity B Cells Biology Essay The immune system is also known as the human defence system; it is made up different cells, tissues, proteins and organs which come together to play different roles in protecting the body from pathogens which are brought about by microorganisms such as: bacteria, parasites and viruses. The main cells which support the immune system include: phagocytes (white blood cells) and lymphocytes. In this section of the assignment, I will highlight the main functions of the immune system; looking specifically at how the cells of the immune system deal with infections after injuries and how this immunity is maintained in the bodys system. How the immune system responds to an infection after a cut in the finger: The human immune system responds to an infection after a cut by the process of inflammation. Inflammation is a non-specific defence response where blood and white blood cells called phagocytes are delivered to the hurt area in order to take immediate action against all kinds of pathogens which have invaded the body. After microbes and other external substances have entered the open cut, a blood clot will be produced to seal the wound in order to prevent other microbes from entering. After this barrier is placed forward, the process of inflammation can then take place effectively: Infected cells such as: mast cells and basophils start to produce chemical mediators such as: histamine. When the histamine is released, it helps increase the blood flow by widening the capillaries and arterioles which in turn increase the amount of oxygen and nutrients needed for inflammation to take place effectively. Increased blood flow also means that there will be more tissue fluid due to the pressure; this formation will not only carry the dead tissue and cells, but will allow them to drain away into the lymphatic vessels. Likewise, the increased permeability of the capillary walls allows the antibodies, white blood cells and plasma fluid to break through the walls and into the swelling tissues (tissue oedema). To finalise the healing process, the histamine attracts the white blood cells (phagocytes) sending them to the injured area where they engulf the microbes; some phagocytes, such as the neutrophils will consume them before dying to form a liquid like substance called: pus. In order to clear the area for new growth, the macrophages will also consume and absorb the microbes. How this immunity is maintained: Immunity is maintained by the adaptive response system (specific), where specialised white blood cells (lymphocytes) work with the phagocytes in order to identify specific antigens on the surface of microbes before they have a chance of invading the body. The two types of lymphocytes that play a part in maintaining immunity are: B-cells and T-cells. Just like B-cells, T-cells are generated in the bone marrow, but the only difference is that they develop in the thymus. Being cell-mediated, these cells will detect antigens both outside the blood and inside the cells before eliminating them. Whether on the outside or inside the cell, the macrophage will present the antigen directly to the T-cells as its surface receptor for stimulation. Following this stimulation, the T-cell will differentiate into four specialised cells which all work differently to maintain immunity: Memory T-cells= these act in the same manner as the memory B-cells to ensure that when the same antigen comes around it is dealt with quickly. Helper T-cells= these work with B-cells to make antibodies and produce a chemical called: cytokines which enables killer T-cells and macrophages to do their job properly. Killer T-cells= these attach to the antigen and demolish it. Suppressor T-cells= these turn off the whole process to prevent damaging effects of the immune system. Likewise, the B-cells are made and grown in the bone marrow and being antibody-mediated (humoral), they will secrete antibodies as surface receptors to help detect antigens in the blood and outside cells. When the antigens have been detected, the T-helper cells will work with the B-cells to expand into other functional cells known as: plasma cells and memory B-cells. The plasma cells will secrete antibodies which will in turn attach to the antigens making them targets for the macrophages as antigen presenters to take to the T- killer cells in order to be demolished. For memory and recognition, the B memory cells will ensure that when the same antigen pops up it is dealt with quickly. For example, once someone has recovered from chicken pox, next time this antigen wants to attack the memory B-cells will recognise the antigen and will instruct the bodys defence mechanisms to attack the antigen with the required amounts of T-killer cells; therefore the body would have a fast and effective way of dealing with the chicken pox to maintain immunity. Task 3 (D2) In order to protect the body against pathogens, the immune system responds in two different ways: non-specific (innate) and specific (adaptive). This section examines and contrasts the dexterity and adeptness of the role of each defence mechanism. The innate (normal) defences are known as immediate because they act quickly to help prevent any type of microbe from invading the body. Whereas adaptive (adjusted) defences only target specific pathogens and due to their delayed response they have to first examine the pathogens before taking action. Non-specific defences: Firstly, the non-specific defence mechanism fall into two categories the first and second line of defence. The first line of defence is made up of physical and chemical barriers; the second line comes under cellular defences such as: inflammation and phagocytosis. The first line of defence also known as external, can be split up into: skin, mucous membranes, secretions and natural substances such as: lysozymes and saliva. The skin and mucous membranes have different characteristics which allow them to keep the microbes away from the surfaces of the body. The skin consists of a strong outer layer which is made of different cells in particular cells covered in a protein substance called: keratin and tissues such as: connective and epithelial tissues which all come together to prevent any microbe from breaking into the skin. This process is aided by the secreted antibacterial sweat and sebum on the surface of the skin. In the same way, mucous membranes which contain ciliated tissues secrete a thick substance called: mucus. The mucus found in areas such as: the nose and throat (respiratory system) helps manoeuvre the microbes and other un-wanted substances away from external and internal areas of the body. Also, the natural chemical barriers such as: tears and saliva consist of an antibacterial enzyme called: lysozome which chemically destroys the bacteria. If this first line of defence fails to work, the now internal second line of defence will act immediately to prevent further invasion. The process which responds to tissue damage (inflammation) will release chemicals such as: histamine, which is designed to promote (phagocytosis) by attracting macrophages and neutrophils to the surface of inflammation in order to enhance healing by engulfing the microbes. Although, these lines of defence are ideal for the body, the pain, swelling and heat brought about each time can cause discomfort after the microbes have entered the body. Specific defences: In contrast to this, adaptive defences hold the third line of defence to help maintain immunity. These are categorised as specific: cell-mediated and humoral (antibody-mediated) defences. After the non-specific defence has completed its job, the specific immune system takes on the role of finishing it off; the two types of lymphocytes involved in the neutralising and then killing of the invading microbes are: B-cells and T-cells. Both cells mature in the bone marrow, but T-cells normally activate in the thymus gland. With the help of T-cells (T-helper cells), B-cells will automatically identify the invaders and respond by producing two functioning cells: plasma cells and memory B-cells. The plasma cells will make the antibodies which attach to the antigen, encouraging the T-killer cells to come along and cause destruction. These cells secrete a chemical called: cytotoxic which immediately kills the antigen. As a result, the T-suppressor cells which have differentiated from the T-cells will turn off the whole immune response, clearing away the mess to get ready for the next attack. After this, due to their ability to remember the B-memory and T-memory cells will be able to prepare for the next antigen that comes to attack. Despite all the advantages of this defence system, the time it takes to react against the invaders is longer than that of the non-specific defence system which enhances the chances of infection in the body for example: if the body cant fight that specific virus quick enough it might lead to certain symptoms such as: flu. Also the fact that the pathogens are specific gives a delayed reaction against other pathogens. Conclusion: In conclusion, each defence system works in its own unique way. However, in my opinion the effectiveness of non-specific defence mechanisms over weighs that of specific defences. Although the processes involved in non-specific defences cause discomfort to the body, the immediate reaction against invaders is easily stimulated to protect the body against further infection. The fact that this defence system is constantly fighting external attacks from different pathogens shows how strong and effective it is. Whereas specific defences take longer to act and can only react to specific invaders which might lead to a weakened immunity system due to multiple infections in the body.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Genetic transformation and competence in e. coli when exposed to the green fluorescent protein

Genetic transformation and competence in e. coli when exposed to the green fluorescent protein INTRODUCTION: The goal of this experiment was to successfully insert the plasmid pGLO, which carries genes for resistance to ampicilin and for green fluorescent protein (GFP), into competent E. coli cells thereby genetically transforming E. coli to have those specific traits. Green Fluorescent Protein comes from the jellyfish Aequorea Victoria and it emits green light when excited by blue light and when in the presence of the sugar arabinose. This protein has proven significant as a gene marker as well as other forth coming uses in biochemistry, cell and microbiology (Allison, Sattenstall, 2007). In a study done by Allison and Sattenstall (2007), it was found that introducing GFP into a cell causes changes in the cell physiology that might lead to antimicrobial susceptibility of the cell. This could be of concern because of its widespread use and Allison and Sattenstall urge caution when interpreting data from studies that used GFP (Allison, Sattenstall, 2007). According to Tsen et al., the E. c oli bacteria can naturally transform with inserted plasmids and integrate them without special treatments. As long as the DNA in the plasmids is Concatemeric linear, monomeric circular or supercoiled forms of plasmid, they can transform the E. coli, whereas linear monomer cannot transform it (Tsen, et al., 2002). The uses of green fluorescent protein in competent cells such as E. coli as mentioned before are very useful in gene markers and other studies in biochemistry, cell and microbiology, however, there are still being advances made for GFP. In a study done by Torrado, Iglesias and Mikhailov, techniques were improved in how well cells expressed the GFP gene based on the growing environments (Torrado, Iglesias, Mikhailov, 2008). In our experiment, we postulate that the E. coli will be competent for the pGLO plasmid carrying GFP and resistance to ampicilin. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this experiment we will be using the plasmid pGLO which has genes for GFP and resistance to ampicilin. In order to force the plasmids into the E. coli cells, we will be using a heat shock treatment. This heat shock treatment causes the pores in the E. coli cell membrane to open, which allows the plasmid pGLO to enter the cell. We will test an E. coli centrifuge tube that has been exposed to pGLO and a centrifuge tube that has not been exposed to pGLO as our control. We labeled two centrifuge tubes with +pGLO and -pGLO to represent which tube carried the plasmid and which was our control, respectively. We first pipette 250 microliters of transformation solution into the tubes and added approximately 2 pen tip sized E. coli colonies. We then added the pGLO plasmids to the tube labeled +pGLO and rested both tubes on ice. The ice will make it so that the heat shock will have a greater affect on the E. coli, thereby increasing our chances of successful entrance of the plasmid. We then applied the heat shock treatment to the two centrifuge tubes by putting them in a 42ÂÂ °C water bath for 50 seconds. Afterward we put them back into the ice bath and prepared to put them into the four prepared agar plates. The four agar plates were split into two sets, two help +pGLO and two held our control -pGLO. The first plate contained just Luria Broth (LB) and 250 microliters of the -pGLO substance. The second control plate was LB with a mix of ampicilin (amp) and -pGLO E. coli solution which will ideally not grow any E. coli because E. coli by itself is not resistant to ampicilin. The third plate is used with +pGLO solution and is another LB/amp plate. The fourth and final plate is another +pGLO plate and contains LB and ampicilin but also arabinose, which is needed for the expression of the GFP. RESULTS: In this experiment, we used heat shock treatment in order to insert the pGLO plasmid into E. coli cells because the plasmid carries the genes that code for green fluorescent protein and ampicilin resistance. After a week of incubation in the refrigerator, we analyzed our four Petri dishes. All plates came out as predicted. Our first control plate (-pGLO E. coli cells) contained Luria Broth and ampicilin and it sustained 0% E. coli cell growth. The second control plate (-pGLO E. coli cells) contained only Luria Broth and there was 100% coverage of the agar plates. The lawn made by the E. coli cells was a whitish clear color in normal light and were not fluorescent green when exposed to UV light. In the two transformation plates, we received positive results matching our predictions. In the first transformation plate (+pGLO E. coli cells) there was a presence of Luria Broth and ampicilin. There were roughly 140 colonies of E. coli cells which was about 60% coverage of the Petri dish. Each of the colonies was an off whitish color under normal light but were not fluorescent green under UV light. The second transformation plate (+pGLO E. coli cells) contained a mixture of Luria Broth, ampicilin and arabinose. This plate had E. coli colony growth but there were only roughly 40 E. coli colonies, making about a 25% coverage of the plate. Again these colonies were whitish in color when exposed to normal light however, they did turn fluorescent green under the UV light. TABLE OF RESULTS: TYPE OF PLATE CONTENTS SKETCH OF PLATE OBSERVATIONS Transformation +pGLO/LB/amp/ara -Growth of Colonies (40 count; 25% coverage) -Whitish color in normal light -Fluorescent green under UV Transformation +pGLO/LB/amp -Growth in Colonies (140 count; 60% coverage) -Whitish color in normal light -No fluorescent green color under UV Control -pGLO/LB/amp -No E. coli growth, E. coli not transformed (0% coverage) Control -pGLO/LB -E. coli growth present (100% coverage) -Whitish color in normal light -No fluorescent color in UV light DISCUSSION: The hypothesis is the following: After heat shock treatment, the competent E. coli cells will receive the plasmid pGLO, and the E. coli cells will be transformed. We predicted that the E. coli cells would take in the plasmid and transform in our two transformation plates. In the -pGLO/LB control plate we predicted that significant growth would happen because there is no antibiotics and only an optimal growing environment. In the -pGLO/LB/amp control plate we predicted that there would be no growth of E. coli because ampicilin is present, an antibiotic that E. coli is not naturally resistant to. In the transformation plate +pGLO/LB/amp we predicted that there would be E. coli growth considering we hypothesized that the plasmid would be accepted by the E. coli cell, thereby giving it ampicilin resistance. In our last transformation plate +pGLO/LB/amp/ara we again expected growth of E. coli since we hypothesized the E. coli cell would be competent for the plasmid. We also expected that this would be the plate to glow fluorescent green since arabinose, the sugar that allows for the glowing, was present in the agar plate. In order for this experiment to show true results, we added the two control plates with different purposes. The first plate contained only Luria Broth, the ideal growing environment for E. coli. This plate was used to make sure that our E. coli cells were healthy and able to grow consistently. If they were unable to grow, that would mean that our cells were unhealthy or contaminated, which would in turn affect the results of our transformation plates. Our results for this plate were that we had healthy E. coli cells since they produced a full lawn. Our second plate was the one with both Luria Broth and ampicilin for the growing environment. We did not have any growth of E. coli on this plate, just as we predicted. This is good because the plasmid we were using to transform the E. coli cells have the gene that causes ampicilin resistance. If our E. coli had been contaminated or already transformed from its non-resistance state, we would see it in this control plate. If we had seen gro wth, we would know that our results for the transformation plates were faulty because our normal E. coli was already resistant. Next we examined our transformation plates. These plates were the ones that we exposed to the pGLO plasmid. Our first plate had Luria Broth and ampicilin, just like our control; however, since we treated this batch with the pGLO plasmid followed by heat shock treatment, we expected to see growth. Our results from this plate did show that the E. coli grew in the ampicilin agar plate, thereby showing how many of the E. coli cells received the plasmid and were able to be genetically transformed. However, under the UV light, the colonies did not glow fluorescent green because of the absence of arabinose. Our second transformation plate had Luria Broth, ampicilin and arabinose. Our results followed our predictions that we would see growth and have the colonies glow under the UV light. This is because the E. coli that took the plasmids were transformed so they showed their new resistance to ampicilin and they showed that when grown in an environment where arabinose is present, the green fl uorescent protein will be expressed. Our results did indeed support our hypothesis because the E. coli were transformed in our transformation plates because we saw that colonies were able to grow in an environment where ampicilin was present and also the green fluorescent protein was expressed in arabinose rich environments. There was an area of weakness in our experiment. The crucial part, the heat shock that opens the cellular membrane pores, could have gone a bit smoother. Our times were not exact due to many groups trying to do this part all at once. Secondly, there is room for error in the consistency of our experiment plates since each member of the group took turns at each stage of the process. In conclusion, the results of our experiment proved our hypothesis that the E. coli cells were competent for the pGLO plasmid. Our results were consistent with our predictions. We found that the E. coli cells can be transformed by the plasmid after our heat shock treatment. Our control plates can out controlled and our transformation plates produced colonies that expressed the GFP gene. SOURCES: Allison, D.G., Sattenstall, M.A. (2007). The Influence of green fluorescent protein incorporation on bacterial physiology: a note of caution. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103(2), 318-324 Suh-Der Tsen, S., Suh-Sen Fang, S., Mei-Jye Chen, S., Jun-Yi Chien, S., Chih-Chun Lee, S., Han-Lin Tsen, D. (2002). Natural Plasmid Transformation in Escherichia coli. Journal of Biomedical Science, 9(3), 246-252. doi:10.1159/000059425. Torrado, M., Iglesias, R., Mikhailov, A.T. (2008). Detection of protein interactions based on gfp fragment complementation by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry. BioTechniques, 44(1), 70-74.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Charles V :: essays research papers

CHARLES V FEBRUARY 24, 1500 – SEPTEMBER 21, 1558   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Charles V was born on February 24, 1500 in Ghent, which today is better known Belgium. He was the oldest in the family so when his father died in 1506, he inherited the Netherlands and the Franche Comte, which was located in France but actually belonged to the Holy Roman Empire. He gained much more land once his maternal and paternal grandfathers died. Not since Charlemagne, in the early 9th Century, had one person dominated so much land.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When Charles visited Spain for the first time, he realized that he wasn’t popular among the citizens. However, his fight against the muslim Turks and the German Protestants won him some acceptance. Though being accepted was a problem, controlling the finances became a much larger one. There were many times when promising military campaigns had to be broken off due to lack of money and at times it appeared that Charles didn’t much mind that such actions had to be taken.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 1519 Charles was elected German King and Holy Roman Emperor. So after his visit to Spain he went to Germany to be officially crowned king. But, he would have to wait until 1530 to become the Holy Roman Emperor. Charles was going through a lot and he soon started feeling the pressures of his obligations and to add to his pressures, he would soon be going into war with France, a big competitor and persistent enemy.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Charles V went through many wars, but his most were with France. The Valois kings fought the emperor for the leadership of Europe in general and for the domination of Italy in particular. Though in 1525 Charles’s army defeated and captured Francis I of France at the Battle of Pavia in Italy it was thought that the war was over. But when the peace compromise was final and Francis was released, the Italian wars began again. In 1535 the Spaniards captured Milan and confirmed their domination of Italy.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Finally, in stages, between 1555 through 1568, Charles V voluntarily gave up the throne.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The World Trade Organization Where It’s Been and Where’s It’s Going? Es

The World Trade Organization Where It’s Been and Where’s It’s Going? Since the start of trade in the United States and around the world there has always been a need for rules and regulations. The GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) was the one for the past century that dealt with issues that would arise they wrote rules on things that were acceptable and not acceptable in the trade arena. Out of the GATT came the World Trade Organization (WTO) that was designed to take care of more issues than GATT. Although the WTO has only been around for almost a decade it has come under criticism from almost all arenas. They have had issues brought to their table that have been hard decisions and now have issues they must deal with that could affect the way free trade is in the future. Countries have battled amongst each other as how to solve a problem such as The Beef Hormone Case, The Shrimp Turtle case and the Caribbean Banana Case. These were case that will be discussed later, but have set a kind of foundation for the WTO as to where they will b e headed in the future. Agriculture has become a hot issue in the international market and the WTO is still trying to find ways to accommodate the developed countries and develop further growth in the developing nations. The World Trade Organization is also stepping into new territory and the future is no exception. The World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization was developed in 1995 out of what was known as the Uruguay Round. Although GATT set rules they mostly dealt with issues just involving simple trade of goods and the distribution of tariffs. The WTO has a more broad job than the GATT; â€Å"†¦it oversees multilateral agreements relating not just to good, but... ... the job that they were made to do under the GATT regulations. The future will tell a lot about the WTO and free trade because so many things are brought to the table that eventually the World Trade Organization is going to need some form of help to make adequate decisions for the world. BIBLIOGRAPHY Diao, Xinshen, Terry Roe and Agapi Somwaru. â€Å"Developing Country Interests in Agricultural Reforms Under the World Trade Organization.† American Journal of Economics v.84, n3 (August 2002): 782-90 Irwin, Douglas. Free Trade Under Fire. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2002. Josling, Tim. â€Å"Key Issues in the World Trade Organization Negotiations on Agriculture.† American Journal of Agricultural Economics v.85, n3 (August 2003): 663-667 Working Group on the WTO/MAI. â€Å"A Citizen’s Guide to the World Trade Organization† (July 1999): 1-28

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Henry V Represents the More Selfish Side

â€Å"Henry V represents the more selfish side of Kingship† Shakespeare creates two ways for the audience to see King Henry V. One way is King Henry being a gracious, caring king. The other way Shakespeare has created for the audience to see is King Henry being a selfish, cold king. Many people do believe that King Henry V is depicted as a selfish and cold hearted king who is not concerned or worried about the human cost of war. I believe the contrary. I believe that King Henry V was a loving and caring King towards the people of his country and family.In Act one scene one (line 39-40) Canterbury describes King Henry V as a thoughtful and devout ruler. â€Å"Hear him but reason in divinity, and all-admiring, with and inward wish, you would desire the king were made a prelate. † This indicates that the people of his country appreciate him and sees him as a considerate and divine king. King Henry V always tryst to stand by his Kingdom and protect it however he can. As he notices the assassination plot of Scroop, Cambridge and Gray in act one scene two (line 76-79) he sentences them to death.Though Scroop, Cambridge and Gray are his friends he still stands by his Kingdom to keep it safe. â€Å"The mercy that quick in us but late By your own counsel is suppress’d and kill’d. You must not dare for shame to talk of mercy, for your own reasons turn into your bosoms,† In act four King Henry V is sharing the concerns of the common soldiers. His bravery and courage are reflected in his soldiers; especially after his speech about ‘St Crispin’s Day’ In act four scene 3 (line 18-67). This day is called the feast of crispian. He that outlives this day and comes safe home†¦ He shall see this day and live old age, will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbors, And say ‘tomorrow is saint crispian†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This shows that King Henry V is heroic to his soldiers and gives them faith and courage by this speech sh owing high spirits and strength. After the Battle (Act 5 scene 2) King Henry V proposes to princess Katharine of France.Though he has the power to force her to marry him, he decides to try to convince her by admiring her and telling her that she will have a good life with him as a husband. â€Å"But in loving me you should love the friend of France†¦ I will have it all mine; and, Kate, when France is mine and I am yours, then yours is France, and you are mine. † (line 167-169) Overall I think that King Henry V is a caring King with courage and a lot of Strength. He stands by his country and supports and protects it with all his faith and strength .